Leica 'R' CAMS Explained



Shows Black Tab on Right (Cam) but both Chrome Cams are missing



Two Cam Lens (Left) One Cam Lens (Right)

Three Cam Lens, Third Cam is the Black Tab above the Chrome Second Cam

One Cam - Leica R lenses for Leicaflex cameras with external meter are single-cam lenses (one axial cam.)

Two Cam - Leica R lenses for TTL meter Leicaflex cameras are two-cam lenses (two axial cams.)

Three Cam - Leica R lenses for Leica-R cameras (R3 - R8) are three-cam lenses (two axial & one rotational cam.)

R Only - Leica R series lens for use on the Leica R series only. This lens clearly states this on the side of the lens.

You may use any 1, 2 or 3 Cam lens on any SLR body without worry of damaging your camera or lens.

There are four lens versions:

One axial cam for use with the original Leicaflex (external metering).

Two axial cams for all Leicaflex cameras.

Two axial & one rotational cam for use on all Leicaflex and Leica R cameras.

R Cam Only with only the rotational cam, for use on the Leica R only.

However, all reflex lenses will work on any Leicaflex or Leica R camera body. If you use a one or two cam lens on a Leica R body, you must stop down the lens to take a meter reading. Otherwise the reading will be wrong. Likewise using a one cam lens on a Leicaflex with TTL metering.

If an R lens without rotational cam is used accidently on a Leica R camera, it will produce incorrect exposure. But it does not cause any physical damage to camera or lens. Simply stop down to take a correct exposure reading. A Leica R lens without a rotational cam is a Leicaflex lens.

CONVERSION OF LEICAFLEX LENSES FOR USE ON LEICA R MODELS

Existing LEICAFLEX lenses can be fitted with an additional cam for the full utilization of the LEICA R exposure facilities. The use of modified lenses on all LEICAFLEX models remains unrestricted. Modification can be made through Leica or third party Leica service facility.

CONVERSION OF LEICA R LENSES FOR ADDITIONAL USE IN LEICAFLEX MODELS

From the stated serial numbers onwards, the following lenses fit on all LEICA R models but no longer on the LEICAFLEX models. Most of these lenses can be equipped with the control cams necessary for use on the LEICAFLEX models by the Technical Service of Ernst Leitz GmbH or in authorized workshops.

CAN BE EQUIPPED FOR LEICAFLEX MODELS:

28 mm ELMARIT-R f/2.8 from 3367501

35 mm ELMARIT-R f/2.8 from 3332801

50 mm SUMMILUX-R f/1.4 from 3291801

60 mm MACRO-ELMAR-R f/2.8 from 3335501 for SL/SL2 models

80 mm SUMMILUX R f/1.4 from 3267301

90 mm SUMMICRON-R f/2 before 3381677

90 mm ELMARIT-R f/2.8 from 3384201 for SL/SL2 models only

Leica 135mm F2.8 Elmarit-R

The 135mm Elmarit-R has a reputation for oustanding Sharpness & Contrast, even wide open. At F4 the lens is performing already at its maximum. It is perfect for portraits and for close up photography. Its flat field and ability to work well with the Elpro attachments allows this lens to become a stellar performer, even at 1:3 magnification. It was produced in two versions with two different optical formulas. Both versions utilized 5 elements in 5 groups, but the later version had a completely different optical formula. Another Great Leica lens when you need the extended reach of the 135mm focal length.

Leica 100mm F2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

This lens is recognized as the Finest lens ever created by Leica or any Manufacturer. As many manufacturers these days are throwing around the word APO in the marketing of their lenses, Leica takes this designation very seriously. The APO-Macro-Elmarit 100mm is corrected completely through the Infrared range, allowing you to shoot Infrared film without re-adjusting the lens focus. Therefore, Infrared markings on the lens have been done away with. The lens is characterized by evenness of field, absolute film sharpness from edge to edge and No Loss of quality when used wide open at F2.8. The color balance of the lens is perfectly neutral. The lens is somewhat large and heavy but is easy to handle and perfectly balanced on the SL or R body cameras. Flare reduction is top notch as the front element is deeply recessed within the lens barrel and the built in Hood allows convenient added protection against flare when you need it. The focusing mechanism is internal and as such, the front of the lens does not rotate allowing easy use of 60mm Polarizing filters. The lens focuses to 1/2 lifesize and to 1:1 (lifesize) with the optional Leica APO-Elpro Adapter for this lens. The minimum focusing distance is 45cm, allowing you ample room between yourself and subject. The lens was made in both R and ROM mounts. The std. R mount is no longer available, but Leica will convert this lens for use on the Leicaflex SL series cameras for a reasonable fee. Nothing wiggles or feels flimsy on this lens. It is the Landcruiser of lenses.

Leica 90mm F2.8 Elmarit-R

This is the most popular Telephoto lens for the Leica R system. The Lens is small, easy to carry & handle, very sharp & contrasty and Fast enough for most situations. The 90mm Elmarit has an outstanding reputation and is perfect for portraits as well as scenics when you want to get in a little closer to fill the frame. It was produced in two versions with two different optical formulas. The first version utilized 5 elements in 4 groups, while the later version utilized 4 elements in 4 groups. This lens is also great for close ups. With the addition of the Elpro, a magnification of 1:3 is produced which will fill the frame with most subjects. The lens also has a flat field by design, lending itself well to macro photography. This is a very verstile lens.

Leica 60mm F2.8 Macro-Elmarit-R


Two versions of this lens were produced, but only the cosmetics changed as the optical group was identical. The first version can be used with All Leicaflex and R models, whereas the second version can only be used on the R series cameras. The deeply recessed lens elements greatly reduced flare and the use of a hood is generally not needed. The lens formula has been optimized for near range photography, but you will find that this lens also produces fantastic results at infinity. The primary difference between Macro lenses and ordinary lenses is Flatness of field and the optical formula that is changed for optimum close distance photography. The lens will focus to 1:2 lifesize and with the Macro extension will focus down to 1:1. The second version utilized the Macro-Adapter-R in place of the extension of the earlier model and therefore can only be used with the R series cameras. Working distance is tight when getting close to the 1:2-1:1 ratios, but the extra depth of field as opposed to the 100mm Macro lens is a very welcome addition. This lens is capable of first class results and along with the 100mm Macro creates a perfect kit for exploring the world of close up photography.

Leica 50mm F2 Summicron-R



The 50mm Summicron is the Swiss Army Knife of lenses. You can it for almost any subject. Allowing you to fill a frame easier than with the 35mm lens, the 50mm lens is easier to use and a cinch to get great results. The optical design of the Summicron 50mm is absolutely legendary, and the performance of this lens is unmatched. Sharp from edge to edge, a total absence of distortion, and superb contrast at any aperture set this lens apart from all other 50mm lenses. The 50mm Summicron was produced in three versions. The optical design was changed with the second version. Note the beautiful golden coatings in the early 50mm Summicron pictured above. For most people, the 50mm Summicron is the first step into the Leica system. Once this lens is put to use, you to will become like the rest of us and only shoot Leica. This is why there is always an abundance of used Nikon and Canon gear on the market! This is your starting point, but luck is on your side because prices on used Leica R system lenses are very reasonable. So count your blessings and join the Leicaphiles. As someone once said "I'll see you on the other side".

Leica 35mm F2 Summicron-R

The 35mm Summicron is the most widely used lens of any Leica system. The slightly wide perspective lends itself well to most subject matter. The Leica Summicron is legendary among lenses, an the R version of this lens is no exception. There were basically two versions of this lens. The early version was substantially heavier and incorporated two extra elements when compared to the later/current version of this lens. The early version also had a wider focusing ring than the second version allowing for a better and more secure grip. It can be argued as to which one is better, but let me assure you that either one of these lenses will perform way beyond the limitations of any other 35mm lens. Once again, using the lens wide open at F2 yields perfectly sharp and contrasty pictures. Apertures are only used for creative control, not to make the image quality better as is the case with all other manufacturers lenses. The Leica R system is todays best bargain, and the 35mm Summicron is a good place to start along with a nice Leicaflex SL. Soon the prices will go up on Leica SLR equipment as people come to realize how fantastic this system really is.

Leica 28mm Elmarit-R



Two versions of this lens were produced, and the optical formula was finally changed 1994. The hood on the first version was supplied with a small thumbwheel screw on the side to provide a means for rotating a polarizing filter while the hood was attached. When the 35mm Summicron is not quite wide enough, the 28mm Elmarit fills the gap. Considered to be the most useful true wide angle lens, the 28mm Elmarit should be a part of every persons kit. The lens is very compact and with the use of Leica adapter 22228, the lens can also be used on your M system camera bodies. This lens is an excellent performer producing very sharp and contrasty negatives as can be expected from all Leica designed lenses. The close focusing range of only 30cm makes this lens very useful for a variety of subjects when out in the field with tremendous depth of field at your fingertips.

Why do R lenses come in 2/3-CAM or ROM mounts?

Single cam

The original Leicaflex Standard camera, released in 1964, used a cam arrangement inside the lens mount to mechanically communicate the aperture information from each lens to the camera body (similar to the way the Nikon AI mount does it). As there was only one cam, ergo… "single cam".

2-cam

When the Leicaflex SL, with its integrated TTL light meter, was introduced in 1968, a new lens cam was added for aperture indexing. To maintain backward compatibility with older Leicaflex cameras, new lenses were released with two cams, so they could aperture-index on both old and new Leicaflex bodies.

3-cam

In 1976 Leica released the R3, the first of its R series SLR cameras designed in collaboration with Minolta. Because the new camera(s) had auto exposure features, this meant adding another cam, bringing the total to three. This third cam is a black stepped affair, located next to and just inside the chrome 2nd cam.

R-only

An added complication is that some newer R lenses are sold as 3rd cam only. These will only mount on R bodies and are easy to distinguish as they have a collar around the base of the stainless steel lens mount flange, to prevent you from mounting them onto older Leicaflex bodies.

Leica Lens Serial Numbers -> Production Year

Leica Bruger Information -> Objektiv serienr. If you have a serial number of a Leica lens, this list will tell you when it was produced (1933-2000). This list covers lenses from the Leica R series (SLR), the Leica M and the screw mount series (Rangefinder).If you furthermore wish to determine which the model or generation you have of that particular vintage Elmar, Elmarit, Summicron ... or perhaps which hood is designed for your particular leica lens - then look at the pointers at the bottom of this page.
If you are looking to determine the age of your vintage Leica camera based on serial number, you may find some of the references on the Link page useful. [Danish] Liste over Leica objektivers produktionsår med udgangspunkt i serienummeret (1933 and 2000).

Leica M/R/SM Serialnumbers
Start - End: Production year
156 001-195 000: 1933
195 001-236 000: 1934
236 001-284 600: 1935
284 601-345 000: 1936
345 001-416 500: 1937
416 501-490 000: 1938
490 001-538 500: 1939
538 501-565 000: 1940
565 001-582 294: 1941
582 295-593 000: 1942
593 001-594 880: 1943
594 881-595 000: 1944
595 001-601 000: 1945
601 001-633 000: 1946
633 001-647 000: 1947
647 001-682 000: 1948
682 001-756 000: 1949
756 001-840 000: 1950
840 001-950 000: 1951
950 001-1 051 000: 1952
1 051 000-1 124 000: 1953
1 124 001-1 236 000: 1954
1 236 001-1 333 000: 1955
1 333 001-1 459 000: 1956
1 459 001-1 548 000: 1957
1 548 001-1 645 300: 1958
1 645 301-1 717 000: 1959
1 717 001-1 827 000: 1960
1 827 001-1 913 000: 1961
1 913 001-1 967 100: 1962
1 967 101-2 015 700: 1963
2 015 701-2 077 500: 1964
2 077 501-2 156 300: 1965

2 156 301-2 236 500: 1966
2 236 501-2 254 400: 1967
2 254 401-2 312 750: 1968
2 312 751-2 384 700: 1969
2 384 701-2 468 500: 1970
2 468 501-2 503 100: 1971
2 503 101-2 556 500: 1972
2 556 501-2 663 400: 1973
2 663 401-2 731 900: 1974
2 731 901-2 761 100: 1975
2 761 101-2 809 400: 1976
2 809 401-2 880 600: 1977
2 880 601-2 967 250: 1978
2 967 251-3 013 650: 1979
3 013 651-3 087 000: 1980
3 087 001-3 160 500: 1981
3 160 501-3 249 100: 1982
3 249 101-3 294 900: 1983
3 294 901-3 346 200: 1984
3 346 201-3 383 200: 1985
3 383 201-3 422 890: 1986
3 422 891-3 455 870: 1987
3 455 871-3 478 900: 1988
3 478 901-3 503 150: 1989
3 503 151-3 540 467: 1990
3 540 468-3 583 830: 1991
3 585 831-3 610 680: 1992
3 610 381-3 644 475: 1993
3 644 476-3 677 030: 1994
3 677 031-3 730 290: 1995
3 730 291-3 770 920: 1996
3 770 930-3 818 624: 1997
3 818 625-3 857 849: 1998
3 857 850-3 882 996: 1999
3 882 997 ->: 2000 ->

Leica R Mount SLR Lenses

While the Leica screw-mount and M bayonet

mount rangefinder lenses are familiar to most camera collectors, Leitz also produced a wide range of lenses for its single lens reflex cameras. These cameras have a long history, starting out with the original Leicaflex , the auto-exposure R3, the famous all-mechanical R6, and continuing on to the current Leica R9 which accommodates an 11-megapixel digital back.

With the exception of auto-focus, the Leica SLR system is just as advanced as their equivalents from Canon or Nikon. However, because Leica always stood for precision, ruggedness, reliability, and mechanical perfection above everything, they never went towards the lightweight plastics and looser focusing tolerances that auto-focus cameras entailed. Thus, all Leica R lenses are manual focus only. For the same reasons, Leica has not produced as many zoom lenses as its Japanese competitors. In fact, a couple of Leitz's SLR zooms are actually Minolta designs. Ask around, it's easy to find out which.

Leica R Lenses

For the most part, R lenses are interchangeable with any age Leica SLRs. Except for the newest ROM lenses which should not be used on Leicaflex cameras, at most you lose the ability to matrix meter, or to meter at full aperture (stop-down metering only).


There are some series variations in Leica R-Mount lenses:

  • One-cam (Original Leicaflex). This is the silver-chrome triangular cam marked (1) on the photograph right. Leica doesn't recommend using 1-cam or 2-cam lenses on the R8 or R9.
  • Two-cam (Leicaflex SL/SL2). This is the silver-chrome triangular cam at the top-left (11 o'clock) position in Exhibit A (behind the 3rd cam in the Exhibit B). Leica doesn't recommend using 1-cam or 2-cam lenses on the R8 or R9 because the cam may damage the ROM contacts if it's out of spec.
  • Three-cam (Leica R series). The 'R-cam' or third cam is the stepped black metal cam barely visible in Exhibit A, right next to the silver wedge-shaped 2nd cam. The third or R-cam is used on R-series cameras (R3-R7). Three-cam lenses are the most compatible as they can be used on any Leica SLR ever made. In response to my lousy photo, reader Ken O'Kelley sent me a much better photo (Exhibit B) of the 3rd cam.
  • R-only (Leica R series only). These lenses only have the stepped R-cam and cannot be used on the older Leicaflex cameras. Leica changed the mount slightly so they will not even mount on a Leicaflex. You need to make sure that you can see cams 1 and 2 if you want to use newerlenses on older bodies.
  • ROM lenses: the latest lenses designed for use with the Leica R8 and R9 cameras which had electronic contacts between the camera body and lens. This allows the lens to transmit additional data to the camera. ROM lenses cannot be used on the original Leicaflex series as they will not even mount due to a slight bayonet change. They have the R-cam so they can be used on any R series Leica.

Upgrading older lenses / Using adapters

Although older lenses were originally made with 1- or 2-cams, Leica offered an upgrade service to bring them up to 3-cams (you can also modify a R-only or ROM-only lens backwards to 3-cam as well, although you lose the ROM contacts if you do this). So just because a lens has 3-cams doesn't mean that it is a second-generation lens. You have to use other factors in determining the lens version such as the distinct profile of each version, the serial number, the presence or absence of a built-in lens hood; or the weight.

Many people use their Leica R lenses on Canon SLRs (including digital SLRs such as the Canon EOS 20D) with an adapter that is widely available (see CameraQuest.com for a source in the USA). I use mine with the Hansa adapter which I bought in Japan (picture right). If you have an adapter, it does not matter if you have 1, 2, 3, or ROM cams on your R lens if you are using it on another camera system since you will always be shooting using open-aperture metering. The system works fantastically well. I have some photographs using the 180mm Elmarit on my gallery page.

In order for an adapter to work, there are two factors. The first is the body "lens registration" distance or the distance from the lens mount to the film surface. The second is the mount "throat size" or the diameter of the mount. For an adapter to slip in between the body and lens of differing manufacturers, the registration distance of the lens must be greater than the registration distance of the body; and the throat-size of the lens must be smaller than the throat size of the body mount.

New Sigma 50-150 & 70-200


Sigma today announced two new telephoto zooms - one for APS-C cameras and one for full-frame. The APO 50-150mm F2.8 II EX DC HSM uses no less than four SLD elements in its design to minimize aberrations and HSM focusing to keep the noise down. Internal focus and zoom ensure there is no change to the size of the lens during use. The APO 70-200mm F2.8 II EX DG MACRO HSM has a modified layout to improve close-up performance to make better use of the maximum 1:3.5 subject magnification ratio. Pricing and availability are to be announced but click though for specifications.

Large aperture telephoto zoom lens designed exclusively for digital SLR cameras and reveals its strength in close-up photography

APO 50-150mm F2.8 II EX DC HSM

The Sigma Corporation is pleased to announce the launch of the new APO 50-150mm F2.8 II EX DC HSM lens.

This large aperture telephoto zoom lens is designed exclusively for digital SLR cameras with APS-C size sensors and its compact, lightweight body provides freedom of movement and versatility. The minimum focusing distance of 100cm/39.4in. and the high-resolution power layout have improved the strength of the lens in close-up photography. This lens offers a large aperture of F2.8 and its large depth of field offers greater freedom of creative expression. It has a maximum aperture of F2.8. Four SLD glass elements are used for maximum correction of chromatic aberrations. The super multi-layer lens coating reduce flare and ghosting and ensure sharp images throughout the entire zoom range. The lens design incorporates an inner focusing and inner zooming system. As the overall length of the lens does not change during focusing and zooming, convenient handling is ensured. The HSM (Hyper Sonic Motor) system allows quiet and high-speed auto focusing with full time manual focus override by just rotating the focusing ring. The addition of the optional 1.4x EX DG APO or 2x EX DG APO Tele Converters produce a 70-210mm F4 AF tele-zoom lens and a 100-300mm F5.6 AF ultra-telephoto zoom lens respectively.

*Vignetting will occur if the lens is used with digital cameras with image sensors larger than APS-C size or 35mm SLR cameras.

Sigma APO 50-150mm F2.8 II EX DC HSM Features

  • Compact, lightweight, large aperture telephoto zoom lens.
  • SLD (Special Low Dispersion) glass elements and the super multi layer lens coating assured high image quality throughout the entire zoom range.
  • The new lens design ensures high image quality at the minimum focusing distance of 100cm/39.4in.
  • Equipped with HSM (Hyper Sonic Motor) with full-time manual focus override.
  • Compatible with Sigma 1.4x EX DG and 2x EX DG APO Tele-Converters.

Press release:

Large aperture zoom lens with improved optical performance

APO 70-200mm F2.8 II EX DG MACRO HSM

The Sigma Corporation is pleased to announce the launch of the new APO 70-200mm F2.8 II EX DG MACRO HSM.

This large aperture zoom lens has improved optical performance and retains close-up ability with a minimum focusing distance of 100cm/39.4in and maximum magnification ration of 1:3.5. This lens is suitable for taking all type of subjects such as portraits, landscape, and close-up pictures. Two SLD (Special Low Dispersion) and three ELD (Extraordinary Low Dispersion) glass elements provide excellent correction for all types of aberrations. High image quality is assured throughout the entire zoom range. The super multi-layer coating reduces flare and ghosting. This lens incorporates HSM (Hyper Sonic Motor), which ensures a quiet and high-speed AF as well as full-time manual focusing capability. The lens design incorporates an inner focusing and inner zooming systems. The overall length of the lens does not change during focusing and zooming, ensuring convenient handling. A removable tripod collar (TS-21) is included as a standard component. When this lens is used with the optional 1.4x EX DG APO or 2x EX DG APO Tele Converters, it becomes a 98-280mm F4 AF telephoto zoom lens or a 140-400mm F5.6 AF telephoto zoom lens respectively.

Sigma APO 70-200mm F2.8 II EX DC HSM Features

  • Improved optical performance with a minimum focusing distance of 100cm/39.4in and maximum magnification of 1:3.5.
  • Two SLD and three ELD glass elements provide excellent correction for all types of aberrations.
  • Super multi-layer coating reduces flare and ghosting.
  • HSM ensures quiet, high speed autofocus with full time manual focusing.
  • APO Tele Converter is available.

Tamron builds 'D40-friendly' 18-250

Tamron has announced a new version of its popular 18-250 superzoom with an in-built focus motor evidently aimed at users of Nikon's D40 and D40x DSLRs. These two cameras lack legacy lens support in the form of a mechanical focus coupling - an omission widely criticized due to the reduced range of available lenses. Other specs appear to be unchanged from the existing version. Due to go on sale in Japan on December 13th, pricing and worldwide availability are yet to be announced.

A Compact, Lightweight and Ultimate High Power Zoom Lens Boasting the 13.9X Zoom
Power Designed Exclusively for APS-C Sized Digital SLRs

Mr. Morio Ono, of Tamron Co., Ltd., announced that the company will release the AF18-250mm F/3.5-6.3 Di-II LD Aspherical (IF) Macro, a lightweight, compact and ultra high power zoom lens designed exclusively for digital SLR cameras with APS-C sized image sensors with a built-in motor for Nikon (Model A18N II).

The AF18-250mm F/3.5-6.3 Di-II LD Aspherical (IF) Macro is the ultimate high power zoom lens boasting the world’s greatest zoom ratio* of 13.9X, a milestone that Tamron, the pioneer of high power zoom lenses, has achieved by commanding its technologies to further expand the capabilities of high power zoom lenses.

Nikon ViewNX 1.0.3

What's New?

Modifications enabled with Ver. 1.0.3 (Mac OS):

  • A thumbnail of the first frame of .MOV, .AVI, .WMV, and MPEG-1 movie files recorded by Nikon digital cameras, or created with a Nikon application, is now displayed in Thumbnail Grid mode. In addition, an icon indicating that the file is a movie is displayed at the bottom of movie thumbnails.
  • Playback of .MOV, AVI, WMV, and MPEG-1 movie files recorded by Nikon digital cameras, or created with a Nikon application is now possible in the image view area.
  • New Folder, Delete, and Output (Convert Files…, Email…, Print…, SlideShow…) options have been added to the Thumbnail area context menu* in Thumbnail Grid and Image Viewer modes.
  • Delete, Output (Convert Files…, Email…, Print…), Next, and Previous options have been added to the Image View area context menu* in Image Viewer mode.
  • A Copy Camera Settings option has been added to the Camera Settings palette context menu*. This option copies camera settings to the computer’s clipboard.
  • Items in the Camera Settings tab of the Camera Settings palette have been rearranged for increased clarity. Camera Settings: File, Camera, Exposure, Flash, Image Settings, Picture Control, Optimize Image, GPS. However, as camera settings may differ depending upon the selected image file, all of the items listed above may not be displayed.
  • When multiple images are selected in the Thumbnail area of Thumbnail Grid mode, the total file size of all selected images is now displayed in the status bar.
  • An Eject option has been added to the Folder palette context menu*.
  • When the Folder palette is displayed, you can now use the TAB key to switch between the Folder palette and Thumbnail area.
  • Operation has been changed with multiple display systems so that Full Screen mode is now displayed on the primary monitor.
  • When image files with which IPTC information had been embedded using a third-party application, such as Adobe Photoshop CS3, were opened in ViewNX, ViewNX quit unexpectedly. This issue has been resolved.
  • Compensation to correct for loss of marginal lumination is now automatically applied to RAW images captured with the D3 and the following lenses:
    • AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 70-200mm f/2.8G IF-ED
    • AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 80-200mm f / 2.8D IF-ED
  • When camera settings for images captured with the PC Micro-Nikkor 85mm f/2.8D were displayed, "G" was sometimes displayed in the lens name despite the fact that this is a D-type lens. This issue has been resolved.
  • When Show file information was enabled (checked) for slideshows, image shutter speed and aperture settings were not displayed. This issue has been resolved.
    *A context menu is the menu displayed when the CONTROL button is held down and the mouse button is clicked on a Macintosh.

Modifications enabled with Ver. 1.0.3:

  • A thumbnail of the first frame of .MOV, .AVI, .WMV, and MPEG-1 movie files recorded by Nikon digital cameras, or created with a Nikon application, is now displayed in Thumbnail Grid mode. In addition, an icon indicating that the file is a movie is displayed at the bottom of movie thumbnails.
  • Playback of .MOV, AVI, WMV, and MPEG-1 movie files recorded by Nikon digital cameras, or created with a Nikon application is now possible in the image view area.
  • When images are selected and drag and drop operation is performed holding right mouse button down, a menu displaying Copy Here, Move Here, and Cancel options is now displayed at the destination.
  • Images displayed in Full Screen mode can now be moved to the Recycle Bin by pressing the DELETE key on the keyboard.
  • New Folder, Delete, and Output (Convert Files…, Email…, Print…, SlideShow…) options have been added to the Thumbnail area context menu* in Thumbnail Grid and Image Viewer modes.
  • Delete, Output (Convert Files…, Email…, Print…), Next, and Previous options have been added to the Image View area context menu* in Image Viewer mode.
  • A Copy Camera Settings option has been added to the Camera Settings palette context menu*. This option copies camera settings to the computer’s clipboard.
  • Items in the Camera Settings tab of the Camera Settings palette have been rearranged for increased clarity. Camera Settings: File, Camera, Exposure, Flash, Image Settings, Picture Control, Optimize Image, GPS. However, as camera settings may differ depending upon the selected image file, all of the items listed above may not be displayed.
  • When multiple images are selected in the Thumbnail area of Thumbnail Grid mode, the total file size of all selected images is now displayed in the status bar.
  • An Eject option has been added to the Folder palette context menu*.
  • When the Folder palette is displayed, you can now use the TAB key to switch between the Folder palette and Thumbnail area.
  • Operation has been changed with multiple display systems so that Full Screen mode is now displayed on the primary monitor.
  • When image files with which IPTC information had been embedded using a third-party application, such as Adobe Photoshop CS3, were opened in ViewNX, ViewNX quit unexpectedly. This issue has been resolved.
  • An issue that prevented proper installation of ViewNX to systems to which certain software had been installed has been resolved.
  • When certain software was installed after ViewNX had been installed, ViewNX failed to start properly. This issue has been resolved.
  • Compensation to correct for loss of marginal lumination is now automatically applied to RAW images captured with the D3 and the following lenses:
    • AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 70-200mm f/2.8G IF-ED
    • AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 80-200mm f / 2.8D IF-ED
  • When camera settings for images captured with the PC Micro-Nikkor 85mm f/2.8D were displayed, "G" was sometimes displayed in the lens name despite the fact that this is a D-type lens. This issue has been resolved.
  • When Show file information was enabled (checked) for slideshows, image shutter speed and aperture settings were not displayed. This issue has been resolved.

Click here for further information or to download Nikon ViewNX 1.0.3 (Mac OS)

Click here for further information or to download Nikon ViewNX 1.0.3 (Windows)

Camera Raw 4.3.1 update

This new version of the Camera Raw plug-in replaces the original Camera Raw plug-in that was installed with Adobe Creative Suite 3, Adobe Photoshop CS3, Adobe Photoshop Elements 5.0 and 6.0 and Premiere Elements 3.0 and 4.0 software.

Important notice:
Read the following installation instructions carefully. Incorrect installation will prevent Adobe Bridge and Camera Raw 4.3.1 from reading raw images correctly.

Support for the following camera has been added in this update. Visit the Camera Raw page for a complete list of supported cameras.


  • Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III
  • Canon PowerShot G9
  • Nikon D3
  • Nikon D300
  • Olympus E-3
  • Olympus SP-560 UZ
  • Panasonic DMC-L10

Refer to the following ReadMe file for other updates in this version:


The Camera Raw 4.3.1 plug-in is not compatible with versions of Photoshop earlier than Photoshop CS3 or versions of Photoshop Elements earlier than Photoshop Elements 4.0 for Macintosh or Photoshop Elements 5.0 for Windows, or Premiere Elements 3.0 for Windows. The latest versions of the Camera Raw plug-in available for previous Adobe software titles are listed below:

Mac

  • Photoshop CS2: Camera Raw 3.7
  • Photoshop Elements 3.0: Camera Raw 3.6


Windows

  • Photoshop CS2: Camera Raw 3.7
  • Photoshop Elements 4.0: Camera Raw 3.7
  • Photoshop Elements 3.0: Camera Raw 3.6

File Information

Product Photoshop
Version CS3
Platform Windows
File Name Camera_Raw_4_3_1.zip
File Size 3.3MB

Proceed to Download


System requirements

See the system requirements for Adobe Creative Suite 3 software, Photoshop CS3, Photoshop Elements 5.0 or 6.0, or Premiere Elements 3.0 or 4.0 for Windows.

Installation Instructions

After downloading a ".zip" file, use the operating system or a utility such as WinZip or PKZIP to access the file's contents.

Need help with downloading? See our Downloading Help documents.

To install with Adobe Creative Suite 3 or Photoshop CS3:

1. Exit Photoshop CS3.
2. Open My Computer.
3. Double-click Local Disk (C:).
4. Navigate to: (Please read directory carefully)

Program Files\Common Files\Adobe\Plug-Ins\CS3\File Formats

5. Move the existing Camera Raw.8bi plug-in to another location (for example, a new folder on your desktop). Ensure you keep this version in case you need to revert back.

6. Copy the Camera Raw plug-in, Camera Raw.8bi, from the download into the same folder as Step 4.

7. Launch Photoshop CS3 or Adobe Bridge.

NOTE: If generic camera thumbnails appear in Adobe Bridge, follow the these steps:

1. Check to make sure the plug-in was installed in the correct directory in step 4 above.
2. Start Bridge.
3. Choose Tools > Cache > Purge Central Cache.

Important: Purging the Central Cache deletes cached thumbnail information for all folders. It also deletes labels, ratings, and rotation settings for read-only files (for example, files on a CD or locked files) or file formats that don't have XMP support.

To install with Adobe Photoshop Elements 6.0:

1. Exit Photoshop Elements
2. Open My Computer
3. Double-click Local Disk (C:)
4. Navigate to: (Please read directory carefully)

Program Files\Adobe\Photoshop Elements 6.0\Plug-Ins\File Formats

5. Move the existing Camera Raw.8bi plug-in to another location (for example, a new folder on your desktop). Ensure you keep this version in case you need to revert back.

6. Copy the Camera Raw plug-in, Camera Raw.8bi, from the download into the same folder as Step 4.

7. Launch Photoshop Elements.

To install with Adobe Premiere Elements 4.0:

1. Exit Premiere Elements
2. Open My Computer
3. Double-click Local Disk (C:)
4. Navigate to: (Please read directory carefully)

Program Files\Adobe\Adobe Premiere Elements 4.0\Plug-Ins\Common\PSA

5. Move the existing Camera Raw.8bi plug-in to another location (for example, a new folder on your desktop). Ensure you keep this version in case you need to revert back.

6. Copy the Camera Raw plug-in, Camera Raw.8bi, from the download into the same folder as Step 4.

7. Launch Premiere Elements.

Download at here

AF-S DX VR 18-55/3.5-5.6 G



这 是一款内置 SWM 和减震功能为特点的新型 DX 尼克尔标准变焦镜头。这款轻盈、小巧的经济型3倍变焦尼克尔镜头提供了很多的功能,并覆盖 18 至 55mm的最常用焦段。将这款镜头安装在任一 DX 格式尼康数码单镜反光相机上时,视角相当于35mm格式胶片相机或尼康 FX 格式相机 27 至 82.5mm 的视角。

  尼康的 VR(减震)系统将有效降低相机摇晃带来的照片模糊情况,它提供了相当于提高 3 档快门速度的拍摄效果。 它还支持在黄昏、夜晚,甚至光线很差的室内环境下手持相机拍摄。尼康 VR 功能的另一个主要特点是可以提供稳定的取景器影像,这也使得取景和构图的过程更流畅和精确。

  为提供优良的光学性能,尼康公司为新型的镜头设定了非常严格的测定标准,以达到较高的图像分辨率。新开发的光学系统 用于优化尼康数码单镜反光相机,该系统结合了可最大程度降低各种变形的混合非球面镜头元件。尼康的超级综合镀膜技术可提供优秀的色彩平衡和还原,并将鬼影 和眩光减小到最低程度。

  镜头内的超轻便宁静波动马达(SWM)提供了超快、超安静的自动对焦操作。7 叶圆形光圈使焦外成像显得更为自然丰满。此外,在整个变焦范围内,它具有 0.28 m 的最近对焦距离。

  小巧尺寸的机身尺寸73 x 79.5 mm 和约 265 g 的重量提供了优质的手感且便于携带。

  AF-S DX 尼克尔18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G VR 是 DX 尼克尔镜头产品家族又一创新性成果,它为摄影者提供了较强的拍摄灵活性,从而拓宽了其应用范围。

  注:此镜头专为尼康DX格式和尼康FX格式数码单镜反光相机而设计并优化,当与FX格式数码单镜反光相机搭配使用时,相机的DX裁切模式会自动启用,并相应改变图像获取范围。DX尼克尔镜头与 35mm [135] 或 IX240 格式胶片相机并不兼容。

  主要特性:

  1、3 倍变焦镜头包含最常用的变焦范围 18 至 55mm(视角相当于 FX 或者 35mm 格式相机中 27 至 82.5mm 的焦距的视角)

  2、VR 操作使得在相当于降低 3 档的快门速度仍能获得锐利影像

  3、专为尼康数码单镜反光相机设计的光学系统提供了优良的光学性能

  4、混合非球面镜头减少了镜头像差

  5、高性能的尼康超级综合镀膜技术可提供优异的色彩还原,并将鬼影和眩光减小到最低程度。

  6、尼康独有的宁静波动马达(SWM)提供了超快、超安静的自动对焦操作

  7、7叶圆形光圈使焦外成像显得更为自然

  8、整个变焦范围内都可获得 0.28 m 的最近对焦距离

  9、可使用尺寸为 52mm 的滤镜附件

  10、符合人体工学设计的镜筒带有防滑表面,手感舒适;独立的变焦环和对焦环提供专业程度的精确表现

主要规格指标

镜头型号: Nikon AF-S DX VR 18-55/3.5-5.6 G
发布日期: 2007-11-20

厂家推荐价格:

卡口类型:

DX

适用卡口:

镜头结构: 11/8
非球面镜片数量: 1
ED镜片数量:
镜头焦距(mm): 18.0-55.0
最大光圈(f/): 3.50-5.60
最小光圈(f/): 22.00-26.00
等效135焦距(mm):
视角(°): 76.0-28.0
光圈叶片:
最大放大倍率: 0.310
最近对焦距离(m): 0.28m
驱动马达:
滤镜直径(mm): 52
遮光罩:
外观尺寸(DxL)(mm): 73.0x79.0
重量(g):
265

'A Virtual Card for You' Virus Hoax

Subject: Virus Warning

CNN announced. PLEASE SEND THIS TO EVERYONE ON YOUR CONTACT LIST !!

A new virus has just been discovered that has been classified by Microsoft as the most destructive ever! This virus was discovered yesterday afternoon by McAfee and no vaccine has yet been developed. This virus simply destroys Sector Zero from the hard disk, where vital information for its functioning are stored.

This virus acts in the following manner: It sends itself automatically to all contacts on your list with the title "A Card for You." As soon as the supposed virtual card is opened, the computer freezes so that the user has to reboot. When the keys or the reset button are pressed, the virus destroys Sector Zero, thus permanently destroying the hard disk.

Yesterday in just a few hours this virus caused panic in New York, according to news broadcast by CNN. This alert was received by an employee of Microsoft itself. So don't open any mails with subject: " A Virtual Card for You. " As soon as you get the mail, delete it. Even if you know the sender.

Please pass this mail to all of your friends. Forward this to everyone in your address book. I'm sure most people, like myself, would rather receive this 25 times than not at all.

Also: Intel announced that a new and very destructive virus was discovered recently. If you receive an email called "An Internet Flower For You", do not open it. Delete it right away! This virus removes all dynamic link libraries (.DLL files) from your computer. Your computer will not be able to boot up!!

This is posted as a warning. Lets hope that none of us gets touched by any of this.


Important 2007 Update: While the 2000-vintage email warnings discussed below about a supposed "Virtual Card for You" virus were confimred hoaxes, a fresh crop of bogus e-greeting card announcements began appearing in 2007 which contain links that actually do expose users to Trojan horses and other dangerous malware.
Read more...

Comments: With so many real viruses wreaking havoc on computers and networks worldwide, it's a shame we have to cope with false warnings like the above. There is no such threat as the "Sector Zero" or "A Card for You" (aka "A Virtual Card for You") virus. If you receive a copy of this alert, just delete it.

As a general rule, acting on forwarded email warnings is the worst way to try to protect yourself from viruses - and not just because the majority of emailed virus warnings are hoaxes. In a sense, all such warnings - even the accurate ones - are misleading, because they leave the false impression that as long as you're on the alert for file attachments with specific names, you will be safe. The reality is that you put yourself at risk by downloading any executable file by any name - and some viruses are even designed to rename themselves or email copies of themselves under randomly varying names.

Much, much, much more important than heeding emailed virus warnings are the simple preventative measures of:

  1. Always being very careful what you download
  2. Scanning your hard drive regularly with up-to-date antivirus software.

source from here

WARNINGS!

The first manufacturing process for Delkin’s SensorWand left a hard seam on the pad which can touch the sensor with potential for scratching. If you have any of this variety, please return the SensorWands only for replacements.


Be Extra Cautious when using the following chemicals as there are no MSDS (material/chemical safety data sheets) provided to the resellers yet to the consumer. These are: Sensor Clean™, Chamber Clean™, Smear Away™ and VDust Formula™ all by Visible Dust.


We would STRONGLY recommend staying away from the "Hurricane" brand of blowers as there has been numerous reports of this brand of blower spewing particles of rubber onto the sensor. UPDATE: As of Nov 2006 we are still getting reports of this happening.


PRECAUTION: The #1 issue consumers are having with the "Brush Method" is the brush leaving smear marks on their sensor. This is caused by a contaminated brush and there are 3 main ways a brush becomes contaminated:
  1. By Canned Air. I have yet to see any canned air that is contaminant free 100% of the time and this is why we (www.cleaningdigitalcameras.com) do NOT recommend any type or brand. Sure some have a lesser potential to spew contaminants than others. A hand blower like a Giotto's Rocket or better yet, a foot pump like a Sevylor have 1000 times less chance of contaminating your brush and they are much cheaper.
  2. By a Dirty Mirror Box. Your mirror and shutter mechanisms have been oiled & greased as they do have moving parts. Sometimes this lubricant travels to places in the mirror chamber that can be accessed by the brush when trying to clean the sensor. To eliminate this, you need to clean the mirror chamber with a product similar to Eclipse™ on a Chamber Swab™ or Visible Dust's Chamber Clean. Cleaning the mirror chamber first before using a brush for the first time is mandatory on the Canon 1D, 1Ds, 1D Mark II and 1Ds Mark II cameras do to the type of paint Canon used in this area on these models.
  3. By Human Skin. DO NOT touch the fibers of the brush with any part of your skin, no matter how recently you washed. There are natural oils on your skin and these show up as smears on your sensor. If you are reading this after the fact (you already touched the fibers of the brush against your skin) you need to wash the brush before using it on the sensor.

Do Not use just any brush to clean the sensor, make sure you buy one that has gone through some rigorous testing and is backed by a reputable firm. There are some people out there that will go down to the local five and dime and buy some brushes then try to sell them out of their garage/internet or on eBay for the purpose of cleaning sensors. They have nothing to lose when YOU screw up YOUR sensor with their inferior items.
Do Not use air compressors or canned air when cleaning optics. You might get lucky some of the time, but both will release unwanted moisture under certain circumstances. This is why we highly recommend the use of foot or hand powered blowers.
Follow the instruction for putting your camera into its "CLEANING MODE". If you try using bulb or a long shutter speed to access the sensor, it is energized and generating static electricity which attracts dust. Attempting to clean the sensor without using the cleaning mode may result in the shutter closing on your cleaning utensil resulting in an expensive repair. There is also the possibility of damage by too much light if sensor is energized and exposed to direct bright light.
Do Not Cut the Pec*Pads as this will cause them to lose their lint free status as cutting will cause fraying. If you do attempt to cut one, make sure you fold the cut end in so that it is not exposed.
Only Kodak, Fuji and Leica, support the consumer in using the same method that they use in-house for cleaning the sensor. All the other manufacturers only support the non-physical contact use of a hand blower. If Canon, Nikon, Pentax or Sigma, can tell that you have touched the sensor, your warranty is void. On the other hand Photographic Solutions Inc., guarantees that you won't damage your camera if you use their SensorSwabs and Eclipse.
When wrapping your SensorWand™ or home made tool, DO NOT touch with your hand, the area of the Pec*Pad™ that will be coming in contact with the sensor. Body oils can be transferred to the sensor this way.

source from here

How to put your camera into its cleaning mode

Canon EOS D30 Operators Manual: Page 117, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS D60 Operators Manual: Page 115, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon Digital Rebel/D300 Operators Manual: Page 34, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon Digital Rebel XT/D350 Operators Manual: Page 39, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS 10D Operators Manual: Page 156, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon 20D Operators Manual: Page 36, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS 1D Operators Manual: Page 150, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS 1Ds Operators Manual: Page 150, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS 1D Mark II Operators Manual: Page 40, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Canon EOS 1Ds Mark II Operators Manual: Page 40, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Fuji
Fuji S1 CCD Cleaning Instructions
Fuji S2 CCD Cleaning Instructions
Fuji S3 Owners Manual: Page 125, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Kodak
Kodak DCS 300, 500 & 600 Series Digital Cameras CCD Cleaning Instructions

Minolta
Maxxum 7D Owners Manual Page 110, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Nikon
Nikon D100 Operators Manual: Page 163, covers how to put into cleaning mode.
Nikon D1X Operators Manual: Page 196, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Nikon D1H Operators Manual: Page 196, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Nikon D2H Operators Manual: Page 238, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Nikon D70 Operators Manual: Page 194, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Nikon D50 Operators Manual: Page 117, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Nikon D2X Operators Manual: Page 252, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Olympus
Olympus E1 Reference Manual: Page 171, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Olympus EVOLT E-300 Instruction Manual: Page 182, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Pentax
Pentax *istD Operators Manual: Page 149, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Pentax *istDS Operators Manual: Page 180, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Pentax *istDL Operators Manual: Page 181, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.

Sigma
Sigma SD9: Page 101, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.
Sigma SD10: Page 101, covers how to put it into cleaning mode.


source from here

Building Your Own Swab/Swipe/Wand

First, we must realize that when using devices to clean the sensor that have not been recommended by the manufacturer it can void your manufacturer warranty. I hate to sound so negative, but I don't want anybody to say they weren't warned. On the other hand, what is the alternative, send it back to the manufacturer every time and pay $75+ hoping it comes back cleaner? As we already know most photographers will try to clean their own cameras. If you have Fuji or Kodak cameras, you're covered, because they support the consumers cleaning the sensor (with Pec*Pads™ and Eclipse™). For those with Canon, Nikon, Pentax or Sigma cameras, you still can have your cleaning endeavor covered by a warranty, if you use SensorSwabs and Eclipse, as the manufacturer of these products, Photographic Solutions Inc., warranties your camera, if you use their products as directed.
For those wishing to make your own Sensor Cleaning Tool, you must first consider what material to make it out of. No matter what material you use for a base, it should be wrapped with a Pec*Pad™. Sure, you could use regular lens tissue, but the financial savings is no where worth the difference in quality. Pec*Pads™ retail for only $.07 each, so this is an area I don't recommend pinching pennies. Let's get back to the materials for the wand itself. Your choices are basically Rubber, Wood and Plastic and I recommend them in that order.
Rubber

Lets start with our favorite, rubber. A small jar/icing spatula seems to work best, the handle is fairly rigid and the blade is a firm rubber. You can pick them up at most "Ace Hardware" stores for a buck or less. Easy to make and a product that should allow enough pressure and yet shouldn't scratch. Some have expressed interest in the Rubbermaid brand of spatula. As you can see from the picture above they are a bit fatter than the NORPRO brand. I compare using the Rubbermaid Spatula for cleaning sensors to using a pair of needle nose pliers to remove a splinter. Remember, you are working down in a small hole and need to see what your doing. The rubber is very simple to cut. I like using a tool I bought from Sears. The "Handi-Cut" gives you quite a bit of leverage and cuts a nice straight line. I have found that a straight edge razor being used like a guillotine works well. I don't recommend a pair of regular scissors, as they tend not to cut a straight line when going through rubber. The photos to the left show the simple 3 steps to cutting your own SensorWand™. Square the tip off, cut the desired width, then put a chisel point on the tip.

Wood
How about wood? This is Nikon's preferred tool for in-house cleaning and in the kits they sell in Japan. The upper most item in the photo above is the Nikon Factory 7.5mm wide sensor cleaning tool which is basically a chopstick with a chiseled tip. The lower item is of a standard tung depressor with one end cut off square. Wood is stiffer than rubber but softer than plastic, so you will need to be cautious. Make sure you don't put too much downward pressure as to crack the filter.

Plastic
Plastic is the hardest of the three and the favorite of Thom Hogan. Of course these are free with every visit to Wendy's. If you want to use plastic, please sand/file/melt the tip to help eliminate any sharp burrs.
Wrapping Your Wand
First, I must re-emphasize the need to do this on a clean surface, the cleaner your work surface the better your results can be anticipated. For illustration purposes only, I'm demonstrating the steps to wrap your own wand with a piece of yellow paper instead of the Pec*Pad™ you should be using. DO NOT touch with your hand, the area of the Pec*Pad™ that will be coming in contact with the sensor. Body oils can be transferred to the sensor this way.
  1. Fold the Pec*Pad™ in half
  2. With the folded edge facing you, take the right hand side and fold about 3/4" to the left at a 30º up angle.
  3. Place the SensorWand™ inside the first fold and take the left hand corner and everything up to the tip of the SensorWand™ to the right at a 30º up angle.
  4. Take the corner facing farthest right and wrap it tightly around the SensorWand™ watching to not deform the tip. Place a piece of Scotch tape or a rubber band around the Pec*Pad™ to hold it in place.
  5. Push the SensorWand™ into the Pec*Pad™, creating a nice tight squared off tip. Be very cautious not to tear the pad and expose the wand tip.


How To Create A Test Image
To Check For Dust
To make a test image, you can use about any lens you want but an non-wide angle lens works better then a wide angle just because of the normal falloff found in most wide angle lenses. You want as much of an even exposure as possible from corner to center. The second consideration is minimum aperture opening; we suggest a lens that will stop down to f/22 or greater. We have found that a great subject to shoot for the test, is your monitor. Seeing that you already have to use a computer to view your test, there is no need to go elsewhere to make the test. You already have a willing and qualified subject right in front of you, why not use it. Prepare your monitor for shooting the test:
  • Create a new image in Photoshop
  • Fill it with white (most any solid color will do, but we prefer a lighter one)
  • Zoom in until it fills your screen

Set the camera to the following:
  • Mode - Aperture Priority
  • Setting - Aperture to minimum f/22-f/45
  • Lens - Manual Focus set to closest focus setting (if shooting the blue sky, then infinity)
  • Features - Turn "OFF" all special function like "sharpening"
  • Take Picture - shoot camera facing your monitor. Depending how bright your monitor is, your exposure may be a couple seconds. During this exposure, move your camera back and fourth being careful to not to point the lens outside of your white box. Moving the camera during the exposure insures that you are not taking a picture of dirt on your monitor. This should be done within a matter of an inch or two from your monitor.
  • Photoshop - Take the image into Photoshop and do a ++ for "auto level" You can lighten or darken if needed.
  • Inspect Image - You can now see where you do or do not have dust. Remember that what you are looking at is an image that is flipped 180° (top to bottom) from when you're looking straight in on your sensor. What shows on the bottom of the image will be towards the top of the camera and visa versa...


Before Converting in Photoshop
Converting in Photoshop


After Photoshop and Before Cleaning
After Cleaning

佳能尼康镜头标识详解

作为一个尼康“玉米”,你是否知道尼康单反镜头上的VR、AF-S是什么意思。而作为佳能的“粉丝”你是否又知道标有USM/U、UD标识的镜头好在那里呢?如果你对这些不是很清楚的话,请往下看。

AI: Automatic Indexing自动最大光圈传递技术
发 布于1977年,是Nikon F卡口的第一次大变动。AI是指将镜头的最大光圈值传递给测光系统以便进行正常曝光测量的过程和方法。当一个AI镜头被装在兼容AI技术的机身上时,该镜 头的最大光圈值在机械连动拨杆的自动接合和驱动下传递给机身的测光系统,以实现全开光圈测光。Nikon F2A、F2AS、Nikkormat EL2、FT3和FM是第一批获益于这项技术的机身。
代表镜头:Nikkor AI 50/1.4

AI-S:Automatic Indexing Shutter自动快门指数传递技术
在1981 年,Nikon对全线AI镜头卡口进行了修改,以便使它能够与即将投入使用的FA高速程序曝光方式完全兼容,这些修改后的新镜头就是AI-S卡口 Nikkor镜头。根据镜头光圈环和光圈直读环上的橙色最小光圈数字以及插刀卡口上的打磨凹槽,非常容易识别。当AI-S镜头用于Nikon FA机身时,它能够根据自身的焦距向机身提供信息以选择正常程序或高速程序,在快门速度优先自动曝光方式时,它们能够在非常宽的光照范围内提供一致的曝光 控制。(因为AI-S镜头是为FA上的曝光“自动化”而定制的,因此机身的自动曝光连动拨杆能够非常流畅地控制AI-S镜头的光圈,以达到更为快速而精确 的曝光控制)。 代表镜头:Nikkor AIS 50/1.4

AF-S: Silent Wave Motor静音马达
代 表该镜头的装载了静音马达(Silent Wave Motor,S),这种马达等同于佳能的超音波马达(ultrasonic motor),可以由“行波”(travelling waves)提供能量进行光学聚焦,可高精确和宁静地快速聚焦,可全时手动对焦。 可支持AF-S 镜头自动对焦的相机有 F5 ; F4; F100; F90X; F90; F80; F70; F65; D1; D1X; D1H; D100,其余的机身可以接用,也可以测光,但不能自动对焦。
代表镜头:28-70mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S Zoom-Nikkor

D型镜头:Distance 焦点距离数据传递技术
代表镜头可回传对焦距离信息,作为 3D(景物的亮度,景物对比度,景物的距离)矩阵测光的参考以及 TTL 均衡闪光的控制。1992年推出。
代表镜头:28-105mm f/3.5-4.5D AF Zoom-Nikkor

CRC:Close Range Correction 近摄校正
采用浮动镜片设计,保证近摄时光学素质不下降,例如AIS 24/2.8、AF 85/1.4D IF之类均采用了CRC技术。

DC : Defocus-image Control 散焦影像控制

尼 康公司独创的镜头,可提供与众不同的散焦影像控制功能。镜头的前端有一个散焦定位转环,该环上的光圈值从F2到F5.6共4挡,分别标在环的左右,用R (后景散焦)与F(前景散焦)来指示。这是一种特殊的定焦镜头,其最大特点在于容许对特定被摄体的背景或前景进行模糊控制,以便求得最佳的焦外成像,这一 点在拍摄人像时非常有价值,它还可以帮助我们根据所想要表现的来控制照片的各个部分,这也是其它厂家同类镜头所无法比拟的。
目前尼康只有2支DC镜头:AF DC 105mm f/2D、AF DC 135mm f/2D

ED : Extra-low Dispersion超底色散镜片
是指这支镜头内含 ED 镜片,最大限度降低镜头色差(chromatic aberration),从而保证镜头有优异的光学表现。
代表镜头:80-200mm f/2.8D ED AF Zoom-Nikkor

G型镜头
与D 型镜头不同的是,该种镜头无光圈环设计,光圈调整必须由机身来完成,同时支持3D矩阵测光。这样的设计减轻了镜头重量,降低了生产成本。该种镜头与F5、 F100、F80、F65、F60、F55、F50、F401、PRONEA和D1机身完全兼容,对于F4、F90F90X、F70、F801和F- 601等机身,只能使用程序曝光和快门优先曝光模式。与剩下的其他机身不兼容。G型Nikkor镜头操作更为简便,理论上没有误操作,因为它无需手动设置 最小光圈。这是塑料AF镜头的延续,针对那些几乎从不手动设置镜头的摄影者。现在Nikon有将G型头推广的趋势。
代表镜头:28-80mm f/3.3-5.6G AF Zoom-Nikkor

IF : Internal Focusing内对焦技术
所谓内对焦是指镜头在对焦时,前后组镜片都不移动,而由镜头内部的一个对焦镜片组(focus lens group)的浮动来完成对焦,对焦时镜头长度保持不变。IF技术的采用使快速而安静的对焦变为可能。
代表镜头:85mm f/1.4D IF AF Nikkor

IX镜头
1996 年Nikon为APS相机Pronea发布的价廉、紧凑的镜头。性状与塑料AF-D镜头相同。不能适配于非APS机身。减少了预留给反光镜的空间,意味着 这类镜头不同用于35mm相机,而且像场也太小,不足以覆盖35mm胶片。但是标准的AF镜头却可以用于APS相机。

Micro
是指这只镜头是微距镜头,或有微距拍摄的功能
代表镜头:105mm f/2.8D AF Micro-Nikkor

N:New 新型
Nikon一些改进型镜头的标志,例如著名的AF 80-200/2.8D ED(N)
N/A:全时手动对焦
与佳能的FTM一样。

P型镜头:内置CPU镜头
机 身内置聚焦马达是个“以不变应万变”的策略,但这个策略对巨大的望远自动镜头并不能很灵,这使得Nikon新机身无法高效使用望远镜头。1998年 Nikon发布了内置了CPU手动聚焦长焦镜头(P),以满足AF机身先进的自动曝光功能,从而部分地解决了这个问题。尽管P型镜头看起来和AI-S镜头 是一样的,但这些镜头却拥有AF镜头的电子和大部分性能。
目前只有3支P型镜头:500/4 IF-ED、1200-1700/5.6-8 IF-ED和45/2.8。

PC - Shift:移轴镜头
移动镜头光轴调整透视的镜头。多用于建筑摄影。

RF : Rear Focusing 后组对焦技术
与IF不同的是,RF镜头由后组镜片(rear lens groups)完成对焦。由于后组镜片比前组镜片要小,易于驱动,所以保证了迅捷的对焦速度,而且镜头长度一样不变。RF对改善成像质量亦有贡献。
代表镜头:85mm f/1.8D AF Nikkor

S:Slim 轻薄
Nikon一些薄型镜头的标志,例如AIS 50/1.8S。

SIC:Super Intergrated Coating 超级复合镀膜

TC :Teleconvertor 增距镜

VR : Vibration Reduction 电子减震系统
NIKON防手震镜头的代号,可用于手持摄影在低速快门时,增加画面的稳定性。能支持VR的机身有 F5、F100、F80、F65、D1、D100。其余机身可以使用镜头但不支持VR功能。
代表镜头:80-400mm f/4.5-5.6D ED VR AF Zoom-Nikkor

source from here

Free Performance Scan

What is the performance status of your system?

You no longer need to guess... this Free Performance Scan will give you a complete diagnosis and deep scan of your current performance status and suggest optimizations.

The Problem
Do you often notice that your PC just doesn’t run as smoothly as it used to? This could be caused by anyone of several problems or a combination of all of them. The problem is, monitoring today’s PCs is increasingly difficult and time consuming. Even experienced users find effective control of all the settings and resources of their PCs hard to achieve.


The Solution
SpeedUpMyPC lets you monitor and control all your PC resources with easy, one click instructions. System settings, internet usage, disk clutter, RAM and CPU are all automatically scanned, cleaned and optimized for peak performance. You can also selectively disable or remove unnecessary background and auto-start processes to cut valuable seconds off your startup time.

2 minutes can save you months of frustration and crashes

source from here

CANON U.S.A. TO EXHIBIT TWO NEW TELEPHOTO LENSES




LAKE SUCCESS, N.Y., October 15, 2007 – Canon U.S.A., Inc., a leader in digital imaging, today announced the development of two all-new telephoto lenses for use with its EOS SLR cameras: the EF200mm f/2L IS USM*/** and the EF800mm f/5.6L IS USM*/**. The Company will exhibit prototypes of the new lenses at PhotoPlus Expo (booth #31, taking place at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York City, October 18 to 20.

The new Canon EF200mm f/2L IS USM and EF800mm f/5.6L IS USM, both of which are L (luxury)-series lenses incorporating a high-performance Image Stabilizer, feature optical systems utilizing special optical materials such as fluorite to correct chromatic aberrations, making possible high-resolution, high-contrast shooting performance.

The Canon EF200mm f/2L IS USM, targeting users who seek a brighter lens for portraiture and indoor sports photography, realizes a large aperture of f/2. The EF800mm f/5.6L IS USM, expected to deliver telephoto performance surpassing the current top-of-the-line EF600mm f/4L IS USM super telephoto lens, is being developed in response to requests from users working in the fields of sports and news photography who are looking for a high-performance lens that offers a longer focal length.

"These new lenses demonstrate that Canon is continuing to respond actively and flexibly to the wide-ranging needs of professional and advanced amateur users, with the aim of contributing to the expansion of photographic possibilities for SLR cameras," said Yuichi Ishizuka, senior vice president and general manager, Consumer Imaging Group, Canon U.S.A. "Canon's EOS System is the premier brand of Digital SLR cameras, and we take great pride in offering the world's largest selection of interchangeable autofocus lenses." ***

As these new lenses are currently under development, pricing and availability information is not yet available.

About Canon U.S.A., Inc.
Canon U.S.A., Inc. delivers consumer, business-to-business, and industrial imaging solutions. Its parent company, Canon Inc. (NYSE:CAJ), a top patent holder of technology, ranking third overall in the U.S. in 2006†, with global revenues of $34.9 billion, is listed as one of Fortune's Most Admired Companies in America and is on the 2007 BusinessWeek list of "Top 100 Brands." To keep apprised of the latest news from Canon U.S.A., sign up for the Company's RSS news feed by visiting www.usa.canon.com/pressroom.

* This device has not been authorized as required by the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. This device is not, and may not be offered for sale or lease, or sold or leased, until authorization is obtained.

** A Product Report required by 21.C.F.R.§ 1002.10 has not been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration for this product. This product is not, and may note be, offered for sale or lease, or sold or leased, until the required report has been submitted.

*** As of October 15, 2007

All referenced product names, and other marks, are trademarks of their respective owners.

Specifications and availability are subject to change without notice.
† IFI Patent Intelligence, January 2007.

Source: http://www.usa.canon.com/html/templa...15_eflens.html

一招克死所有病毒!

呵呵,如果大家使用的是windows2k 或xp那么教大家一招金蝉脱窍 —— 而 且只需要这一招克就能死所有病毒!!

如果你是新装的系统(或者是你能确认你的系统当前是无毒的),那就再好 不过了,现在就立即就打开: “开始→程序→管理工具→计算机管理→本地用户和组→用户” 吧! 首先就是把超级管理员密码更改成十位数以上,然后再建立一个用户,把它的密码也设置成十位以上并且提升为超级管理员。这样做的目的是为了双保险:如果你忘记了其中一个密码,还有使用另一个超管密码登陆来挽回的余地,免得你被拒绝于系统之外;再者就是网上的 黑客无法再通过猜测你系统 超管密码的方式远程获得你系统的控制权而进行破坏。接着再添加两个用户,比如用户名分别为:user1、user2;并且指定他们属于user组,好了,准备工作到这里就全部完成了,以后你除了必要的维护计算机外就不要使用超级管 理员和user2登陆了。只使用user1登陆就可以了。

登陆之后上网的时候找到ie,并为它建立一个快捷方式到桌面上,右键单击快捷方式,选择“以其他用户方式运行”点确定!要上网的时候就点这个快捷方式,它会跟你要用户名和密码这时候你就输入user2的用户名和密码!!!好了,现在你可以使用这个打开的窗口去上网了,可以随你便去放心的浏览任何恶毒的、恶意的、网站跟网页,而不必再担心中招了!因为你当前的系统活动的用户时user1。而user2是不活动的用户,我们使用这个不活动的用户去上网时,无论多聪明的网站,通过ie得到的信息都将让它都将以为这个user2就是你当前活动的用户,如果它要在你浏览时用恶意代码对你的系统搞搞破坏的话根本就时行不通的,即使能行通,那么被修改掉的仅仅时use2 的一个配置文件罢了,而很多恶意代码和病毒试图通过user2进行的破坏活动却都将失败,因为user 2根本就没运行,怎么能取得系统的操作权呢??既然取不得,也就对你无可奈何了。而他们更不可能跨越用户来操作,因为微软得配置本来就是各各用户之间是独立的,就象别人不可能跑到我家占据我睡觉用的床一样,它们无法占据user1的位置!所以你只要能保证总是以这个user2用户做代理来上网(但却不要使用user2来登陆系统,因为如果那样的话,如果user2以前中过什么网页病毒,那么在user2登陆的同时,他们极有可能被激活!),那么无论你中多少网页病毒,全部都将是无法运行或被你当前的user1用户加载的,所以你当前的系统将永远无毒!

不过总有疏忽的时候,一个不小心中毒了怎么办?? 不用担心,现在我们就可以来尽情的表演脱壳的技术了! 开始金蝉脱壳:

重新启动计算机,使用超级管理员登陆——进入系统后什么程序都不要运行你会惊奇的发现在的系统竟然表现的完全无毒!!,那就再好不过了,现在就立即就打开:

“开始→程序→管理工具→计算机管理→本地用户和组→用户” 吧!把里面的user1和user2两个用户权删掉吧,你只需要这么轻轻的一删就可以了,那么以前随着这两个用户而存在的病毒也就跟随着这两个用户的消失而一起去长眠了——(好象是陪葬,呵呵!)。这么做过之后我保证你的win2k就象新装的一个样,任何系统 文件和系统进程里都完全是没有病毒的!

好!现在再重复开始的步骤从新建立user1和user2两个用户,让他们复活吧。他们复活是复活了,但是曾跟随了他们的病毒却是没这机会了,因为win2k 重新建立用户的时候会重新分配给他们全新的配置,而这个配置是全新的也是不可能包含病毒的!!!建立完成之后立即注销超级管理员,转如使用user1登陆,继续你象做的事吧,你会发现你的系统如同全新了!以上方法可以周而复始的用,再加上经常的去打微软的补丁,几乎可以永远保证你的操作系统是无毒状态!只要你能遵循以下几条规则:

一、任何时间都不以超级管理员的身份登陆系统——除非你要进行系统级更新和维护、需要使用超级管理员身份的时候或是你需要添加和删除用户的时候。

二、必须使用超级管理员登陆的时候,保证不使用和运行任何除了操作系统自带的工具和程序之外的任何东西,而且所有维护都只通过开始菜单里的选项来完成,甚至连使用资源管理器去浏览硬盘都不!只做做用户和系统的管理和维护就立即退出,而决不多做逗留!(这也是微软的要求,微软最了解自己的东东,他的建议是正确的。浏览硬盘的事,在其他用户身份下你有大把的机会,在超级管理员的身份下还是不要了!!这应该事能完全作到的)

上面的都作到了,那么排除了硬件和误操作原因、、病毒跟系统瘫痪都将与你无缘了。。。。。。。 转